List of Publications of

 

Prof. Dr. Fayez A. M. Shoukr, Tanta University, Egypt.

 

Professor of Invertebrates, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527,Egypt. Research interests : Biodiversity and taxonomy of invertebrates in the marine environment. These marine invertebrates include the cnidarians (sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish, coral reefs) of Egypt in the Mediterranean sea, Suez Canal and Red sea.

 

 

Welcome

 To My Home Page

 

 

About Me

Name : Prof. Dr . Fayez A. M. Shoukr

Date of birth : 3 October , 1950

Place of birth : Tanta , Gharbia Governorate ,

Egypt

Occupation : Professor

Organization : Tanta University , Faculty of Science ,

Zoology Department

Nationality : Egyptian

Religion : Islam

Marital status : Married , 4 children

Mailing Address : Zoology Department , Faculty of Science ,

Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt

Office phone : +2 (040 ) 3344352

Office Fax : +2 (040) 3350804

Home Address : 6 Ramadan Hospital street , Tanta , Egypt

Home phone : +2 (040) 3304565

Mobile : 0124429962

E-Mail : fayez_shoukr@hotmail.com

Web site : http://www.fayezshoukr.4t.com

 

Qualifications

1. Ph.D., Invertebrate Zoology, Tanta University, Faculty of Science, Egypt, May 1982.

2. M. Sc., Invertebrate Zoology, ibid, Dec. 1978.

3. B.Sc., Zoology, ibid, May 1973.

 

Employments

1.    Professor, Tanta University, Faculty of Science, Tanta, Egypt, from Dec. 2000.

2.    Assistant Professor, ibid, from Oct. 1987.

3.    Lecturer, ibid, from June 1982.

4.    Assistant Lecturer, ibid, from Feb. 1979.

5.    Demonstrator, ibid, from Sep. 1973.

 

Specialization

Major specialization: Biology (Zoology).

Minor specialization: Invertebrates (Marine Ecology).

 

Courses of professional experience

Undergraduate Level: Invertebrate Systematics , Invertebrate Biology, General Zoology, Systematic Zoology, Invertebrates and Phylogeny.

Postgraduate level: Comparative Anatomy of Invertebrates, Invertebrate Embryology, Marine Ecology , Benthos, Zooplankton, Coral reef ecosystem.

 

Research interest

Biodiversity and taxonomy of invertebrates especially in the marine environment. These marine invertebrates include the cnidarians (sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish, coral reefs). Currently, I plan to study toxins of jellyfish, biomedical products of cnidarians and sting prevention of these invertebrates with others. Additional research concerned with the study of echinoderms (sea cucumbers, sea urchins), crustaceans (sea spiders, isopods, amphipods, barnacles) and edible mollusks (bivalves, gastropods) in the Mediterranean sea, Red sea and Suez Canal. These studies restricted to their taxonomy, biology, histological ultrastructure and marine ecology especially the symbiotic associations.

 

M. Sc. Thesis Title: Shoukr, F.A.M. (1978): Studies on sea anemones in Alexandria waters. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. of Sci., Tanta Univ., Egypt, 177 pp. http://www.miesh.i8.com

Ph.D. Thesis Title: Shoukr, F.A.M. (1982): Studies on some Coelenterates (Cnidarians) Inhabiting marine Egyptian waters. Ph.. D. Thesis, Fac. of Sci., Tanta Univ., Egypt, 225pp.

http://www.drfayez.5u.com

 

Research Supervision

1.    Taxonomical, histological and histochemical studies on sea – cucumbers (Holothuridea) in Egyptian water.

2.    Studies on barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in Suez Canal.

3.    Surveillance and ecological studies on crustacea associated with fouling in Suez Canal.

4.    Taxonomical, histological and histochemical studies on sea anemones of the marine coasts of Egypt.

5.    Studies on marine edible molluscs of Egypt.

6.    Studies on woodborer isopods at Port-Said (Egypt).

7.    Field and experimental studies on the common freshwater crustacea.

8.    Studies on sea urchins in Egyptian waters.

9.    Studies on hydrozoans (Phylum: Cnidaria) inhabiting Egyptian water.

10.Studies on cnidarian jellyfishes from some marine coasts

of Egypt .

 

Membership of Scientific Organization

1.    Egyptian society for the development of fisheries and human health (ESDFHH), Egypt.

2.    The Egyptian German Society of Zoology, Egypt.

3.    Union Arab Biologists, Egypt.

4.    The Zoological Society A. R. Egypt.

5.    Hydrozoan Zoologists Association (HZA), Italy.

 

List of Publications

 

1. Ghobashy, A. F., Abdel -Hamid, M .E. and Shoukr, F. A. (1979): Sea anemones in Alexandria Waters. Bull. Fac. Sci. Assiut Univ., 77 – 98. http://www.miesh.i8.com

 

2. Abdel – Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H. and Shoukr, F. A. (1983): Seasonal variations of growth and sexual maturity for Tubularia crocea (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in the eastern harbour of Alexandria. Delta J. Sci., 7 (2): 713 – 733.

 

3. Abdel – Hamid, M.E.; Mona, M.H., Shoukr, F.A. and Seif, A.I. (1984): Checklist of some hydroids in marine fouling in Egyptian waters. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., 25 ( B ) : 311 – 345.

 

4. Shoukr, F.A. (1984): A field guide to identification of Egyptian members of Actiniaria. Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 6:683 – 703. http://www.drfayez.4t.com

 

5. Shoukr, F.A.; Mona, M.H. and Bayoumi, B. M. (1984): Pycnogonids (Chelicerata: Pycnogonida) associated with fouling hydroids from the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Mansoura Sci. Bull. 11: 67 – 78.

 

6. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Bayoumi, B. M. (1984): Two new poyclad flatworms (Turbellaria: Polycladida) form the Suez Canal and Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea). Mansoura Sci. Bull., 11 : 55 – 66 .

 

7. Abdel – Hamid, M, E; Shoukr, F. A; Mona, M. H. and Seif, A. I. (1984): Further studies on marine fouling organisms in some Egyptian harbours. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., ( B ) : 317 – 330.

 

8. Shoukr, F.A., Mona, M. H. and Abdel – Hamid, M. E. (1984): Holothurians ( Echinodermata : Holothuroidea ) from some Egyptian shores . Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 6: 662 –682.

 

9. Abdel – Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Abou Senna, F. M. and EL Damhogi, K. A. (1986): On the genus Clibanarius (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae) in the Egyptian Red sea coasts. Delta J. Sci., 10 (3): 1039 – 1070.

 

10. Shoukr, F.A. and Abdel – Hamid, M. E. (1987): Morphological variations of Tubularia crocea (Agassiz, 1862) (Hydrozoa: Tubulariidae) in Egyptian harbours. Arab Gulf J. Scient. Agric. Biol. Sci., B5 (3): 455 – 462. http://www.drshoukr.50megs.com

 

11. Shoukr, F. A. (1987) : Hydroids from ship's hulls at Port Fouad (Egypt). Delta J. Sci., 11 (2): 929-939.

 

12. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Rizk, E. T. (1987): Paradella heptaphymata : a new isopod species ( Crustacea : Isopoda ) From marine Egyptian water . Delta J. Sci., 11 (1): 508 – 522.

 

13. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Eissa, S. H. (1987): The gut and haemal system of the sea cucumber Holothuria polio (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Mansoura Sci. Bull., 14 (1 ) : 225 – 243.

 

14. Mona, M.H.; Shoukr, F.A., Seif, A.I. and Abdel-Hamid, M.E. (1988): Studies on the integument of three common holothurians from Egyptian coastal waters. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., (27) (B). 55-80.

 

15. Mona, M. H.; Abou-Senna, F.M; Shoukr, F. A. and Ramadan, Sh. (1988): Some ecological observations on crustacean amphipods associated with marine fouling in Suez canal (Egypt). Delta J. Sci., 12 (1): 323 – 355.

 

16. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Sheikh, H. E.; and El-Gamal, M. M. (1989): Surveillance study of marine edible mollusks in Egypt. Scie. J. Fac. SCI. Menoufia Univ., 3: 133 – 148.

 

17. Mona, M. H. and Shoukr, F. A. (1989): Description of a new species of the amphipod genus Corophium with a taxonomic key to known species from the Suez canals (Egypt). Arab Gulf J. Scient. Res., 7 (3): 161 - 169.

 

18. Shoukr, F. A.; Abou-Senna, F. M. and Mona, M. H. (1989): Reproductive activities and abundance of major amphipod crustaceans associated with marine fouling in lake – Timsah (Suez Canal). Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 11: 307 – 324.

 

19. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Shourbagy, I. K. and El-Gamal, M. M. (1989): Trace elements in common edible bivalve molluscs in Egypt. Proc. Zool. Soc., A. R. Egypt, 17: 291 – 304.

 

20. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El – Saadany, M. M. and El – Gamal, M. M. (1989): The byssus system of the molluscan bivalve Lithophaga lithopaga from Abou – Qir coast (Mediterranean sea). Sci. J. Fac. Sci. Menoufia Univ., 3 : 103 – 131.

 

21. Shoukr, F. A. (1990): Actinians associated with coral reefs at Al – Ghardaqa, Red Sea. Bull. Fac. Sci., Zagazig Univ., 12, (2): 827 – 845. http://www.geocities.com/shoukrfa

 

22. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; EL – Shourbagy, I. K. and Eissa, S. H. (1990): Elementary chemical composition of the test and gonads of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus . Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., (6): 210 – 221.

 

23. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Abdel-Hamid, M. E. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1990): On the taxonomic status of sessile barnacles from the Suez Canal. Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 12 (2): 791 – 808.

 

24. Mona, M. H; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Saadany, M. M. and Eissa, S. H. (1991): Histological and ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in the sea – urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Functional and Developmental Morphology 1 (3): 41 – 47.

 

25. Mona, M. H; Shoukr, F. A.; El – Saadany, M.M. and Eissa, S. H. (1991): Histochemical and electron microscopical studies on the spermatogenesis in Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool., 6 (B): 315 – 329.

 

26. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A., and Saif, A. I. (1991): The comparative ultrastructure of the skeleton of some echinoids inhabiting Egyptian coasts. Ain Shams. Sci. Bull., 29 ( B ) : 93 – 116 .

 

27. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and EL – Sheikh, H. (1991): Identification of marine fouling crustacea in the Suez Canal, with a note on distribution and migration. Pakistan J. Zool., 23 (1): 79 – 83.

28. Mona, M. H; Abdel-Hamid, M.E.; Eissa, S. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1992): Light and electron microscopical studies of the developmental stages of nematocysts in Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrida). Ain Shams Sci. Bull., 171 – 188 .

 

29. Abdel-Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Seif, A. I. and Eissa, S. H. (1993): The blood cells of a sea urchin from Abou – kir coast (Alexandria, Egypt). Qatar Univ. Sci. J., 13 (1): 92 – 100.

 

30. Eissa, S. H.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1993): Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a new technique in the classification of some hydrozoans in Egyptian waters. Bull. Fac. Sci., Zagazig Univ., 15 (1): 472-485.

 

31. Eissa, S. H; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1993): Effect of colchicine on the interstitial cells of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrida). J. Fac. Educat. Ain Shams Univ., 18: 13 – 28.

 

32. El-Shanshoury, A. R.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and El-Bossery, A. M. (1994): The enumeration and characterization of bacteria and fungi associated with marine wood – boring isopods, and the ability of these microorganisms to digest cellulose and wood. Marine Biology, 119 (3): 321 – 326.

 

33. Shoukr, F. A. (1996): A transmission electron microscopic study of cnidae and mucous cells in the tentacles of Anemonia sulcata. Arab Gulf J. Scient. Res., 14(1):

205 – 221.

 

34. Shoukr, F. A. (1997): Ultrastructure of the endosymbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum from a sea anemone. J. King Saud Univ., 9 (1): 25 – 34.

http://www.drfayez.i8.com

 

35. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Badawy, B. E. (2000): Structure of gland cells and mesoglea in a sea anemone from the Egyptian water. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 15(4): 9 – 19.

 

36. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Badawy, B. E. (2000): Taxonomy of some sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Egypt. Proc. Inter. Confer. Biol. Sci., Egypt. 1(2) 1 – 18.

http://www.invertebrateseg.8m.net

37. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H., and Eissa, S. H. (2001): Arbacia lixula : A new record to the Egyptian fauna with a systematic account on some sea urchins in Egypt. J. Seto. Mar Biol., Kyoto Univ., Japan.

 

 

 

Abstracts of Publications

 

1. Ghobashy, A. F., Abdel -Hamid, M .E. and Shoukr, F. A. (1979): Sea anemones in Alexandria Waters. Bull. Fac. Sci. Assiut Univ., 77 – 98.

Sea anemones are abundant along the coast of Alexandria, which is about 40 km long. Only three species, belonging to family Actiniidae lives on this coast. They are Anemonia sulcata, Bunodactis rubripunctata and B.verrucosa. Anemonia is the dominant species followed by B. rubripunctata and B. verrucosa was only found at Abu Kir. Detailed study on the anatomy and histology of the three species was made. Hexamerous configuration of tentacles, acrorhagi and mesenteries is disrupted and anomalies occur in Anemonia due to the asexual reproduction, which is common in this species. For the same species largest specimens and those bearing ripe gonads were found in April and September. The communities inhabiting different localities were found statistically belonging to the same population. In the other two species the Hexamerous nature is the rule and can be distinguished by the adhesive property of the verrucae in B . rubripunctata . Sand and pebbles are usually found stuck to the column to this species. http://www.miesh.i8.com

 

2. Abdel – Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H. and Shoukr, F. A. (1983): Seasonal variations of growth and sexual maturity for Tubularia crocea (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in the eastern harbour of Alexandria. Delta J. Sci., 7 (2): 713 – 733.

The periods of maximal growth, regression and breeding of the hydroid Tubularia crocea are studied throughout two years. It was found that these hydroids flourished during the cooler periods of the year and regressed during the hot periods in summer. The actinula larvae and the minute polyps regularly occurred from October to April. Therefore, their breeding season was continuous during autumn, winter and early spring. Moreover, the actinula larvae were often settled and grown on the stems and hydrorhizae of their parents. Thus, false ramification produced for the colonies which usually mistaken their identification. The authors concluded that variability of hydroids in the external features particularly with growth and maturation is very important for their taxonomy.

 

3. Abdel – Hamid, M.E.; Mona, M.H., Shoukr, F.A. and Seif, A.I. (1984): Checklist of some hydroids in marine fouling in Egyptian waters. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., 25 ( B ) : 311 – 345.

A taxonomic list of thirteen species of marine hydroids was reported among fouling organisms at the Suez Canal and Alexandria harbours and shipyards. Among the identified species, six species were new records in the Egyptian fauna. A key was made to identify these hydroids with their geographical distribution. The morphological characters of the identified species were carried out using camera lucida drawings. The identification of several species has been confirmed by the British museum in London.

 

4. Shoukr, F.A. (1984): A field guide to identification of Egyptian members of Actiniaria. Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 6:683 – 703. http://www.drfayez.4t.com

A field guide has been proposed to facilitate the identification of sea anemones in their natural habitats in the Egyptian marine fauna. Seven species are included. Among them, three species were obtained from the coral reefs of Al – Ghardaqa (Red sea) namely: Entacmaea quadricolor (Rueppell & Leuckart, 1828), Antheopsis crispus (Ehrenberg, 1834) and Anthopleura stellula (Ehrenberg, 1834). The anemones Aiptasia diaphana (Rapp, 1829) and Anemonia sulcata (Pennant, 1777) were reported for the first time from Marsa – Matrouh Coast of the Mediterranean. The former species was found also among the marine fouling fauna in Port – Saied and lake Timsah (Suez Canal). Nomenclature revision for these species is discussed with the stinging power of some forms.

 

5. Shoukr, F.A.; Mona, M.H. and Bayoumi, B. M. (1984): Pycnogonids (Chelicerata: Pycnogonida) associated with fouling hydroids from the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Mansoura Sci. Bull. 11: 67 – 78.

Two species of pycnogonids, namely Endeis mollis (Carpenter, 1904) and Anoplodactylus portus Caluman, 1927 are reported for the first time to exist in Egyptian fouling. The species were found among fouling hydroids collected from the eastern harbour of Alexandria. Redescriptions, supplemented with figures, of the two species are given. An identification key to the known pycnogonid species in Alexandria is submitted.

 

6. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Bayoumi, B. M. (1984): Two new poyclad flatworms (Turbellaria: Polycladida) form the Suez Canal and Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea). Mansoura Sci. Bull., 11 : 55 – 66 .

Two new polycladid species, Aegyptocelis ghardaquensis gen. n. sp. n. and Discocelis interpellus sp. n, are described from AL- Ghardaqa and Suez Canal. The new genus Aegyptocelis is erected for the former species. An identification key of the known Egyptian polycladid genera is included.

 

7. Abdel – Hamid, M, E; Shoukr, F. A; Mona, M. H. and Seif, A. I. (1984): Further studies on marine fouling organisms in some Egyptian harbours. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., ( B ) : 317 – 330.

Detailed studies of the composition, breeding seasons and nature of fouling organisms were made. The present work contains an addition of several taxa to the Egyptian fouling list, which were not previously recorded. These taxa belong to the following animal groups: Protozoa, acontiarian sea anemones, turbellarian flat worms, nemertean worms, nematods, pycnogonids and bivalvian molluscs. A list of hydroids and polychaete species inhabiting fouling is given. The fouling picture illustrates that tunicates in addition to polychaete tubeworms, acorn barnacles and Bryozoa are responsible for the density of fouling in Egyptian waters. Both Suez Canal and Damietta harbours were characterized by being the least with respect to both species and individual densities.

 

8. Shoukr, F.A., Mona, M. H. and Abdel – Hamid, M. E. (1984): Holothurians ( Echinodermata : Holothuroidea ) from some Egyptian shores . Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 6: 662 –682.

Five species of holothurians are recorded in the Red and Mediterranean Sea coasts of Egypt. Four species belong to the family Holothuriidae; namely: Holothuria polii , Holothuria arenicola , Holothuria impatiens and Holothuria marmorata . The other species, Synaptula reciprocans belongs to the family Synaptidae.Among the identified species, two are reported for the first time in the Egyptian waters. These species are Holothuria arenicola and Holothuria marmorata . The taxonomic characters and internal anatomy of these species are reviewed. A key is also suggested for their separation. The identification of holothurian species has been confirmed by British Museum (Echinoderm Section). A presumed breeding season of Holothuria polii is determined from the coast of Abou kir at Alexandria. The breeding of this species occurs once every year during warm months.

 

9. Abdel – Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Abou Senna, F. M. and EL Damhogi, K. A. (1986): On the genus Clibanarius (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae) in the Egyptian Red sea coasts. Delta J. Sci., 10 (3): 1039 – 1070.

Six species of hermit crabs, belonging to genus Clibanarius are recorded from the Egyptian Red Sea coasts. Among them two new species and one subspecies are described, illustrated and compared with closely related congeners. These are the first representatives of the genus Clibanarius to be reported from Egyptian coasts. A key is suggested for the separation of known species from east African coasts and Red Sea.

 

10. Shoukr, F.A. and Abdel – Hamid, M. E. (1987): Morphological variations of Tubularia crocea (Agassiz, 1862) (Hydrozoa: Tubulariidae) in Egyptian harbours. Arab Gulf J. Scient. Agric. Biol. Sci., B5 (3): 455 – 462.

The gymnoblastic hydroid Tubularia crocea (Agassiz, 1862) was prominent among fouling communities in the Egyptian harbours at Alexandria, Port – Said and Port – Taufiq. This hydroid showed morphological variation in the number of oral and aboral tentacles and gonophores. These variables were significantly and positively correlated with the length of the hydroid. In spite of the morphological variation of this species, its identification is reliable and there is no need to construct a new species. http://www.drshoukr.50megs.com

 

11. Shoukr, F. A. (1987) : Hydroids from ship's hulls at Port Fouad (Egypt). Delta J. Sci., 11 (2): 929-939.

Two species of hydropolyps, namely Turritopsis nutricula (Brooks) and Bougainvillia ramosa (Van Beneden) are firstly reported to exist on local ships in Port Fouad harbour (Mediterranean Sea). Redescriptions of these cnidarian species are also given.

 

12. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Rizk, E. T. (1987): Paradella heptaphymata : a new isopod species ( Crustacea : Isopoda ) From marine Egyptian water . Delta J. Sci., 11 (1): 508 – 522.

A new isopod species of Sphaeromatidae, Paradella heptaphymata , is described from lake – Timsah ( Suez Canal ) in Egypt .

 

13. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Eissa, S. H. (1987): The gut and haemal system of the sea cucumber Holothuria polio (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Mansoura Sci. Bull., 14 (1 ) : 225 – 243.

The anatomy, histology and histochemistry of the gut and haemal system of the sea cucumber Holothuria polii are described. The gut is differentiated histologically into pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum and cloaca. The wall of each region is composed of four distinct layers: peritoneal epithelium, muscular layer, connective tissue layer and an inner mucosa. Histochemical tests revealed that the polysaccharides are abundant in mucosa of all gut regions especially the oesophagus, intestine and rectum. Protein deposits are observed in the lining epithelial cells of all gut regions. The haemal system consists of two main sinuses running parallel to the gut from the dorsal and ventral sides. The wall of the sinus is composed of three layers: an outer coelomic epithelium heavily loaded with yellow pigments, a very thin layer of circular muscle fibers and the connective tissue layer. Histochemical tests revealed that neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides are abundant in the connective tissue layer, in addition to proteins. The role of the haemal system in digestion and its relation to evolution are discussed.

 

14. Mona, M.H.; Shoukr, F.A., Seif, A.I. and Abdel-Hamid, M.E. (1988): Studies on the integument of three common holothurians from Egyptian coastal waters. Ain Shams Sci. Bull., (27) (B). 55-80.

The histological and histochemical structures of the integument of three Egyptian holothurians: Holothuria polii, Holothuria arenicola and Holothuria marmorata are described. Special attention has been given to the types of coelomocytes in the integument. Reference has been made to the similarity between the morula-shaped coelomocytes of the investigated holothurians and that of the ascidians. The structure and histochemistry of the mucous glands of the integument and their importance in relation to the functional biology of the holothurian species have been considered.

 

15. Mona, M. H.; Abou-Senna, F.M; Shoukr, F. A. and Ramadan, Sh. (1988): Some ecological observations on crustacean amphipods associated with marine fouling in Suez canal (Egypt). Delta J. Sci., 12 (1): 323 – 355.

Species composition, abundance and seasonal variation of amphipods associated with marine fouling at Port Said and Ismailia regions (Suez Canal, Egypt) were investigated. A total of 11 species belonging to two suborders and 5 families are listed, among which two species; namely: Corophium acutum Chev. And Elasmopus rapax Costa ranked the highest degree of dominance. Moreover, the total number of juvenile stages greatly exceeds that of males and females. On the other hand, the total number of females exceeds that of males, since the fouling growths represent suitable ecological sites for their reproduction. In addition, it appears that, amphipod species occur all the year round but their relative abundance showed marked variations during different seasons, being much abundant in spring.

 

16. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Sheikh, H. E.; and El-Gamal, M. M. (1989): Surveillance study of marine edible mollusks in Egypt. Scie. J. Fac. SCI. Menoufia Univ., 3: 133 – 148.

The present work includes a checklist of 41 species of edible molluscs collected from marine water and markets of Egypt. Among the identified species, 32 are included in class Bivalvia, 7 in class Gastropoda and 2 in class Cephalopoda. A detailed list of the sampling places, habitats and shell size is given, together with an auxiliary map. Photographs are also presented to facilitate the separation of species.

 

17. Mona, M. H. and Shoukr, F. A. (1989): Description of a new species of the amphipod genus Corophium with a taxonomic key to known species from the Suez canals (Egypt). Arab Gulf J. Scient. Res., 7 (3): 161 - 169.

Five species of amphipods belonging to the genus Corophium are known from the Suez canal (Egypt). Among these a new species (Corophium bidentatum n. sp.) is described and illustrated. Two species namely: C . sextonae Crawford and C. insidiosum Crawford are recorded for the first time in the Suez canal . A key is provided for the identification of the known species of Corophium in the Suez Canal.

 

18. Shoukr, F. A.; Abou-Senna, F. M. and Mona, M. H. (1989): Reproductive activities and abundance of major amphipod crustaceans associated with marine fouling in lake – Timsah (Suez Canal). Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 11: 307 – 324.

The reproductive activities and abundance of four major amphipod species associated with marine fouling in lake – Timsah have been investigated. These species are Corophium acutum Chevreux, Ericthonius brasiliensis Dana, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate and Elasmopus rapax Costa. These major amphipods constitute about 80% of the free-living amphipods associated with marine fouling in the Suez Canal. The four investigated species are annual species with winter and spring recruited cohorts. On the other hand, their breeding activities begin in winter and increase sharply during early spring, young’s are released through mid summer then begin to mature in late summer and there is considerable mortality in autumn. The sex ratio investigation showed that the females predominated all over the year for the species under consideration and this may be due to the nature of association between them and fouling representatives which seem essentially for the purpose of mating.

 

19. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Shourbagy, I. K. and El-Gamal, M. M. (1989): Trace elements in common edible bivalve molluscs in Egypt. Proc. Zool. Soc., A. R. Egypt, 17: 291 – 304.

This paper reports data for eight elements (iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) in the soft parts of seven dominant edible species belonging to class Lamellibranchiata. These species are Dosinia radiata , Venerupis aurea , Donax trunculus , Callista florida , Taoes decussatus , Lithophaga lithophaga and Pinctade radiata . The bivalves analyzed were procured from the markets on collected in the field to cover as many of the major sources as possible. The results indicate no major threat to public health from trace elements in these species from Egypt and lend confidence to the expansion of aquaculture operations. In particular the levels of iron and lead in the samples analyzed are considerably high but do not in any case approach a level, which would give rise problems to public health. On the contrary, the concentration of trace elements in the present work revealed that, as food item, the investigated edible mollusks might play an important role in living human tissues.

 

20. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; El – Saadany, M. M. and El – Gamal, M. M. (1989): The byssus system of the molluscan bivalve Lithophaga lithopaga from Abou – Qir coast (Mediterranean sea). Sci. J. Fac. Sci. Menoufia Univ., 3 : 103 – 131.

The byssus system of Lithophaga lithophaga , is more or less divided into three parts ; the foot , the byssus duct and the byssus threads . On the basis of structural appearance, the foot could be easily divided into four recognizable parts namely; the external ciliated epithelium, the posterior groove and canals, the foot musculature and nerves and the foot glands. Particular attention has been given to foot glands. Six glands have been recognized and can be divided into two main groups; the pedal and stem glands. The pedal glands can be divided further into four groups P1, P2, P3 and P4, while the stem glands can be divided into two groups S1 and S2. A specific role for each type of the these glands has been given depending on their positions, sites of secretion together with information derived from the histochemical tests.

 

21. Shoukr, F. A. (1990): Actinians associated with coral reefs at Al – Ghardaqa, Red Sea. Bull. Fac. Sci., Zagazig Univ., 12, (2): 827 – 845.

The gross anatomy and histological structure of three anemones namely: Entacmaea quadricolor , Antheopsis crispus and Anthopleura stellula are described from the Egyptian fauna for the first time . The confusion in anemone identification is also discussed. http://www.geocities.com/shoukrfa

 

22. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; EL – Shourbagy, I. K. and Eissa, S. H. (1990): Elementary chemical composition of the test and gonads of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus . Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., (6): 210 – 221.

The chemical composition of both test and gonads of the common sea urchin inhabiting Egyptian waters and known as Paracentrotus lividus was investigated. Gonads were selected for this investigation because they are eaten in a brood level by peoples inhabiting Egyptian shores. Also test was chosen to determine the possibility of using it as a fertilizer in agriculture in future. Measured metals can be divided into two classes, in accordance to their content in the animal: major metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba) and trace metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Li). The test mineral consisted almost entirely of calcium. Concerning the gonads, sodium and iron attained the highest concentration, in some instances calcium, barium and zinc were also quite strongly concentrated. Generally a relationship of some metal concentrations with size of the animal was observed. Usually, the total amount of organic constituents of the ovary is lager than in the testis. The average values of the concentration of both major and trace metals were plotted in the form of bar graphs. The effect of metals on human health is also discussed.

 

23. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Abdel-Hamid, M. E. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1990): On the taxonomic status of sessile barnacles from the Suez Canal. Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., 12 (2): 791 – 808.

Seven Species of sessile barnacles were recorded from the Suez Canal during 1985 and 1986. Five of the recorded species existed as constituents of fouling community and belong to the family Balanidae, namely: Balanus eburneus, B. amphitrite, B. perforatus, B. improvisus and B. trigonus. The remaining two species, namely: Chthamalus stellatus and C. depressus, belong to family Chthamalidae and occurred on rocky substrates. Chthamalus depressus was reported for the first time in the Egyptian fauna. In addition, the distribution and habitats of the collected species have been tabulated. Moreover, a key for the identification of the reported species is suggested.

 

24. Mona, M. H; Shoukr, F. A.; El-Saadany, M. M. and Eissa, S. H. (1991): Histological and ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in the sea – urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Functional and Developmental Morphology 1 (3): 41 – 47.

Changes in the fine structure of growing female germ cells of Paracentrotus lividus and the sequence of their stages were examined by the light and the electron microscope. The investigation showed that, in the previtellogenic stage, the cytoplasm contained numerous vacuoles and few yolk granules. In the vitellogenic stage, the number of yolk granules increased and, as the oocytes attained maturity, the cytoplasm became packed with yolk. The structure of the nutritive phagocytes is also described and their relationship to the developing oocytes is discussed.

 

25. Mona, M. H; Shoukr, F. A.; El – Saadany, M.M. and Eissa, S. H. (1991): Histochemical and electron microscopical studies on the spermatogenesis in Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool., 6 (B): 315 – 329.

Spermatogenesis of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus was examined by light and electron microscopy .All the stages except the spermatid stage were identified. These stages include spermatogonia, spermatocytes and mature sperms. Surrounding the sex cells, are non – germinal cells termed nutritive phagocytes. The fine structure of these cells is described in detail and their possible roles are discussed.

 

26. Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A., and Saif, A. I. (1991): The comparative ultrastructure of the skeleton of some echinoids inhabiting Egyptian coasts. Ain Shams. Sci. Bull., 29 ( B ) : 93 – 116 .

The skeleton of four species of sea urchins was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The ambulacral and interambulacral plates consist of three types of calcareous layers: a thin outer compact layer, an intermediate layer of skeletal trabeculae, and an inner compact layer. The structure and distribution of tubercles are described. Also the study reveals the shape and number of double – pores and the microstructure of the primary spines of each species. The possible functions of the skeletal trabeculae are discussed.

 

27. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and EL – Sheikh, H. (1991): Identification of marine fouling crustacea in the Suez Canal, with a note on distribution and migration. Pakistan J. Zool., 23 (1): 79 – 83.

Twenty-two species of crustaceans (Amphipoda, Tanaidacea and isopoda) were associated with fouling in the Suez Canal. Identification keys are given along with comment on their zoogeographical distribution and migration through Suez Canal.

 

28. Mona, M. H; Abdel-Hamid, M.E.; Eissa, S. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1992): Light and electron microscopical studies of the developmental stages of nematocysts in Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrida). Ain Shams Sci. Bull., 171 – 188 .

The types of nematocysts in the investigated Hydra vulgaris have been identified. Besides, its developmental stages have been described. Five types of nematocysts are detected in the investigated sample. These types are stenotele, desmoneme, holotrichous isorhiza and b-rhabdoid haploneme. Origin of nematocyst as well as the problem of formation of tube has been discussed. It seems possible from the obtained results that both G. A. and E.R. are involved in the development of nematocyst. TEM reveals that the tube is present in the interior of the capsule of stenotele before discharge of the nematocyst. The mechanism of action of cnidocil apparatus has been investigated. It has been concluded that the supportive rods and the interconnecting fibrous collar have developed in order to anchor the nematocyst within the nematocyst and to stabilize its position at the cellular surface during discharge. In addition, intercellular bridges arise during division of the interstitial cells, since there is never more than one such bridge between any two cells in the cnidoblast cluster. The bridge persists throughout the period of differentiation of nematocysts.

 

29. Abdel-Hamid, M. E.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A.; Seif, A. I. and Eissa, S. H. (1993): The blood cells of a sea urchin from Abou – kir coast (Alexandria, Egypt). Qatar Univ. Sci. J., 13 (1): 92 – 100.

The blood cells of a common sea urchin, collected from Abou-kir region, were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Their distribution, properties, characteristics and histogenesis were determined. On the basis of differences in structure and behaviour towards various dyes the blood cells fall into three basic categories: lymphocytes, amoebocytes and morula-shaped cells. Amoebocyetes include the hyaline, phagocytic, vacuolated and granular forms. The probable functions of the blood cell-types, where possible, are suggested.

 

30. Eissa, S. H.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1993): Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a new technique in the classification of some hydrozoans in Egyptian waters. Bull. Fac. Sci., Zagazig Univ., 15 (1): 472-485.

Electrophoretic patterns of total protein of hydrozoans analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were found to be of diagnostic value for their identification. Each species was found to have a distinctive band pattern. In addition, the close similarity of bands between allied species of the same genus was also observed. Hence, the present study recommends that electrophoretic analysis is a valuable complement to morphological characters in hydrozoan systematics.

 

31. Eissa, S. H; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and Sharshar, Kh. M. (1993): Effect of colchicine on the interstitial cells of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrida). J. Fac. Educat. Ain Shams Univ., 18: 13 – 28.

Treatment of Hydra with 0.4% colchicine caused depletion of about 60-65% of their interstitial cells and their cell derivatives namely; nematoblasts, nematocytes, nerve cells and gland cells. A second treatment removed most of the remaining interstitial cells. Interstitial cells were eliminated through phagocytosis by endodermal epithelial cells. The endodermal digestive cells sent processes through the mesoglea, which engulfed interstitial cells and attracted them into the endoderm. The resultant Hydra consisted solely of ectodermal and endodermal epithelial cells. However, these Hydra maintained their life, movement and conduction for some days and could be used to study the behavior of animal tissues lacking nerve and interstitial cells.

 

32. El-Shanshoury, A. R.; Mona, M. H.; Shoukr, F. A. and El-Bossery, A. M. (1994): The enumeration and characterization of bacteria and fungi associated with marine wood – boring isopods, and the ability of these microorganisms to digest cellulose and wood. Marine Biology, 119 (3): 321 – 326.

Bacteria and fungi associated with marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria lignorum and Sphaeroma serratum, and with their wood burrows and seawater were investigated. Plate counts using nutrient agar and Czapex Dox agar media in natural and in artificial seawater were used. The diversity and number of bacteria associated with the two isopods were much higher than those associated with wood or seawater, whereas the opposite was true for fungi. The hydrolytic activity of the predominant genera on carboxymethylcellulose and on different types of wood was investigated. The magnitude of fungal cellulase activity exceeded that of bacteria. Activities of bacterial extracellulases exceeded those of intracellulases, while the opposite was observed for fungi. Celluloytic activity of the predominant isolates biodegraded labkh, peach, white oak and mahogany in decreasing order of activity. Evidence provided by the cellulolytic activities, detected in wood-containing cultures, suggests that the predominant microorganisms isolated may play an important role in the wood boring process. Specimens used in the present study were collected from Port Fouad at Port Said Harbour, Egypt.

 

33. Shoukr, F. A. (1996): A transmission electron microscopic study of cnidae and mucous cells in the tentacles of Anemonia sulcata. Arab Gulf J. Scient. Res., 14(1):

205 – 221.

The sea anemone Anemonia sulcata (Pennant), inhabiting marine-waters of Egypt can sting human skin by their numerous adherent tentacles. They cause erythema, urticaria, itching and scattered patches of dermatitis over the abdomen and hands during swimming or collection of specimens. Tentacles of this species are firstly studied by transmission electron microscopy in Egypt. The present paper describes the ultrastructure of two types of cnidae and mucous cells. The cnidae include the adhesive spirocysts and the stinging nematocysts namely microbasic b-mastigophores. The structure and function of these specialized cells are discussed.

 

34. Shoukr, F. A. (1997): Ultrastructure of the endosymbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum from a sea anemone. J. King Saud Univ., 9 (1): 25 – 34.

During the present study, the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata (Pennant) was collected from the Alexandria coast on the Mediterranean Sea. Numerous symbiont vacuoles were observed in the endoderm of sea anemone organisms. These endosymbionts were identified as Symbiodinum microadriaticum Freudenthal and may be considered as a first record for the Egyptian fauna. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were used to describe the ultrastructure of these symbiotic dinoflagellates. The ecological importance and symbiotic relationship of these zooxanthellae to the sea anemone are discussed.

http://www.drfayez.i8.com

 

35. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Badawy, B. E. (2000): Structure of gland cells and mesoglea in a sea anemone from the Egyptian water. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 15(4): 9 – 19.

The histological and histochemical observations of the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana indicate the presence of three types of gland cells in the body wall. They contain neutral and acidic mucopolysaccharides as well as proteinaceous secretions. Moreover, the gland cells of the mesenteric filaments can be distinguished into acidic mucopolysaccharides and proteinaceous secretory cells. Thus, the gland cells of the stomodaeum may lubricate the ingested food and begin the digestion while those of the mesenteric filaments complete the digestion. On the other hand, the mesoglea consists of collagen-like fibers of conjugated polysaccharides, as well as granular and agranular mesogleal cells with conjugated proteins and polysaccharides respectively, in a gelatinous matrix.

 

36. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H. and Badawy, B. E. (2000): Taxonomy of some sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Egypt. Proc. Inter. Confer. Biol. Sci., Egypt. 1(2) 1 – 18.

The taxonomic description of the fouling anemone Aiptasia diaphana (Cnidaria Anthozoa) is firstly given in Egypt. It has defensive threads filled with stinging nematocysts called acontia, which are emitted from cinclides. Number of the mesenteries ranged between 28-46 pairs with hexamerous, heptamerous or octamerous arrangement. It has a mesogleal sphincter, circumscript diffuse retractors and simple basilar muscles as well as weak parietobasilar muscles. An ectodermal nerve net consists of bipolar and multipolar nerve cells, with a similar nerve net in the endoderm. Conjugated proteins are detected in the nematocysts as a component of their stinging material. A swimming anemone was reported for the first time from lake Manzalah near Port Said. A taxonomic list for the described anemones of Egypt is provided. Besides, a suggested identification key for their separation is constructed and their habitats are indicated. http://www.invertebrateseg.8m.net

 

37. Shoukr, F. A.; Mona, M. H., and Eissa, S. H. (2001): Arbacia lixula : A new record to the Egyptian fauna with a systematic account on some sea urchins in Egypt. J. Seto. Mar Biol., Kyoto Univ., Japan.

A systematic account of sea urchins known from some Egyptian coasts and a key to recorded species is provided. Seven species of echinoids were identified. These echinoids include two species from the Mediterranean Sea (Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus) and five from the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea (Echinometra mathaei, Tripneustes gratilla, Heterocentrotous mammillatus, Diadema setosum and Clypeaster audouini). Among these species, Arbacia lixula is reported for the first time in the Egyptian fauna. Description of the newly recorded species is given.

Internet Guides to Links on Invertebrates & Marine Ecology

 

Shoukr, F. A. 2004. Ecology of some benthic cnidarians inhabiting marine environment in Egypt. Electronic internet document available at http://www.marine.tanta.8m.net/ Published by the author, web page established December, 2004.

 

http://www.marine.tanta.8m.net/

 

Shoukr, F. A. 2004. Reproductive biology of Cnidaria . Electronic internet document available at http://www.marine.tanta.8m.net/ Published by the author, web page established December, 2004.

http://www.marine.tanta.5u.com/

Contact Me :

 

Prof. Dr. Fayez A. M. Shoukr , Professor of Marine Invertebrates, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

E-mail:

fayez_shoukr@hotmail.com